State of Stake is a series of curated news, research, updates, and events in the Proof-of-Stake ecosystem. Stay informed with the biggest PoS networks and all things Staking. This is our 23rd report and we are happy to release it in collaboration with Staking Rewards! Staking Rewards provides trusted access to all passive income opportunities with regard to digital assets. They are curating knowledge and data to build a healthy staking and DeFi ecosystem. Staking Rewards’ core focus are Proof-of-Stake Protocols which enable passive returns through staking. They also cover Masternode Coins, Dividend Tokens, and Lending Protocols.
In this update, we examine the period from 13th June – 27th June with a general overview of the market, highlighted research in the space, news on all launched staking networks, updates on all the upcoming PoS networks, the latest developments from staking infrastructure providers and a handful of staking-related events.
Global Market Overview
The current staking market cap is more than 16,8 billion USD. The value locked into staking networks continues to grow, up 1,300% since the start of 2019.
Being launched recently, Polkadot is already a top-4 asset by locked in staking. Tezos and EOS remain in the leading positions.
Current Value in Staking by Asset
Staking Overview by CryptoDiffer
Think & Stake
The Liquid Staking Research Report seeks to lay the foundation for a broader discussion around the trajectory of Proof-of-Stake and the role of staking assets in the emerging decentralized financial economy. The 88-page report covers five main topics:
1) The Capital Cost of Locking Staked Assets in Escrow – Staking requires users to lock their assets to earn rewards for securing the underlying network. The way most current protocols are designed, this means the burgeoning decentralized finance ecosystem is not accessible to staking users. In addition, protocols enforce waiting periods for users wanting to withdraw their stake. The report goes into why these restrictions exist and what kind of costs they imply to users.
2) The Trajectory of Exchange Staking – Through clever liquidity management and by allowing users to simultaneously stake and access services such as (margin) trading on their centralized platforms, exchanges are able to offer superior products to token holders seeking to participate in staking. The report illustrates this trend and its potentially detrimental second order effects to Proof-of-Stake.
3) A Taxonomy for Liquid Staking – The core goal of the report is to examine alternative staking models that could allow non-custodial staking to rival the centralized custodial experience. To do this, they define liquid staking as protocols that tokenize stake in some form. Tokenized stake, sometimes also referred to as staking derivatives, could allow staking users to access decentralized finance helping them to manage their positions in a flexible and non-custodial manner. The report differentiates between native, non-native, custodial, and synthetic approaches to liquid staking.
4) Risks and Benefits – The report takes a look at the high-level risks and benefits of liquid staking taking into account the user, network, and legal perspective.They discuss everything from potentially interesting staking-related financial products, over the effects on network centralization and governance, to the regulatory implications of different approaches.
5) Approaches and Implementations – The final part of the report describes proposed designs within the space going into potential benefits and weaknesses of models brought forth by project teams like Rocket Pool, StakerDAO, Stake DAO, Acala and others.
Download the full research report here.
“We at Staking Rewards believe that sooner or later DeFi products on top of Proof of Stake networks will emerge to address these issues. There could be secondary markets, derivatives, and insurances to allow staking users to manage their risk and to improve the overall user experience.”
The team has talked to one of the main authors of the report, Felix Lutsch from Chorus One, who shared some exciting insights to help explore the background and motivation of the Liquid Staking Report. Tap on the link above for more!
An extensive article considering the analysis of the mathematical similarities of tokenized staking derivatives in decentralized finance and mortgage-backed securities.
Felix Lutsch, one of the Liquid Staking Report contributor, wrote about this paper in the recent update on Staking Economy:
“One conclusion of the paper aligns with the Liquid Staking Report, which is that staking and DeFi are intrinsically linked, and what is in the process of emerging in the decentralized economy is not too different from what exists in traditional finance. Questions around whether and how this interplay will introduce systemic risk to the crypto ecosystem are important and I encourage everyone to check out the papers and to participate in the discussion, as this will likely become one of the most important topics to deal with as the decentralized finance and staking ecosystems become more interwoven.”
In this episode, they explore the incentives of both consensus systems and defi with Tarun Chitra the Founder & CEO of Gauntlet. Tarun is applying his experience of AI and financial simulation to blockchains. Using ‘agent-based simulation’ he helps protocol designers to discover unexpected strategies to extract more than their share of value.
This is a recording of the ninth Liquid Staking Working Group call that took place on June 17, 2020. The Liquid Staking Working Group is an Interchain Foundation-funded research effort led by Chorus One to explore the different ways staked assets will be tokenized and the implications on the sustainability of the Internet of Blockchains. Gabriel Shapiro was walking us through the legal considerations associated with tokenized liquid staking with follow-on discussion.
Sometimes, blockchain experts claim that some blockchains based on PoS don’t have the problem of block-finality since blocks in them are “instantly final”. This claim is false. Forking is an inevitable problem of any blockchain, no matter what consensus rules are chosen. the recent story with the Steem blockchain shows that finality in a PoS blockchain has an economic underpinning, similar to that of a PoW blockchain. Developers of Ethereum 2.0 share the same vision.
The researchers bring two possible versions of double spend attacks and come to a conclusion that the attacker who allocated a significant amount of power in the form of stakes can launch devastating attacks in the network while avoiding slashing mechanics. This form of attack is very similar to 51% attacks, as may be carried out in the blockchain-based on PoW. Check the article above for more details!
The debut episode of the new video series Crypto Tonight: Talk to Chun is here! In this episode, hosts Yama and Chun Wang, founder of stakefish and co-founder of F2Pool, are joined by a wide array of guests to discuss the state of crypto, with a special focus on the Korean crypto scene. Topics Included: the crypto regulation landscape in Korea, the Korean industries that will benefit the most from blockchain adoption, the centralization risks posed by exchange staking. Among Panel Guests there were Baek Kim, Partner, Hashed, Do Kwon, Co-founder & CEO, Terra, and more!
Over 116k ethereum addresses that hold 32 ETH or more – up over 14% within the last year. Over 65% have addressed their intent to stake in the latest ConsenSys ETH 2.0 study.
As a result of the partnership, you can now find all the staking information about your favorite Proof-of-Stake project directly on Telegram on ablock bot! Add it to your channel and keep an eye on your PoS project staking stats.
In this episode, they discuss:
- How Ian got started validating
- Secretnodes.org’s contribution to the Secret Network
- Challenges he faces as a smaller, independent validator operator
- Whether the Secret Network is welcoming to smaller, independent validator operators
Terra part is contributed by Christopher Heymann, Partner at 1kx
Since the last time Terra was featured on this newsletter, 6 weeks ago, Terra has paid out $820,000 to the validators in the network in real, non-dilutive rewards, bringing the total paid out network rewards to over $3.3 million to date. The rewards on Terra grew over the 58 weeks since mainnet launch at an impressive average week-over-week growth rate of 17%. For every transaction that goes through Terra, a variable tax rate is charged and redistributed to staking token holders. This tax rate is designed to support a continuous increase in staking rewards so that in times of slow network growth it expands and during times of high growth it contracts. This feature was introduced with the Columbus-3 hard fork on December 13th and was held at 0.1% prior to that. It has since its introduction been climbing from 0.5% to now currently 0.8%, coming closer to its maximum of 1%.
Celo part is contributed by Marek Olszewski, Co-Founder of Celo and CTO of cLabs
The validator set in the protocol remains decentralized, with 62 unique validator groups electing at least one validator as of Thursday, 6/18/20. Registered validators hail from around 40 countries, allowing the network to have significant geographic distribution (source: Polychain Labs).
On-chain governance has seen significant engagement from the Celo Native Asset holders. Six governance proposals have been submitted successfully since network launch, including one proposed by the Celo community to rename the native asset on the network from cGLD to CELO. The first community proposal passed with 96.7 percent voting in favor.
Tezos part is contributed by Alexander Eichhorn, Founder at Blockwatch Data
Staking: Tezos’ network-wide staking ratio is at 80.27%, close to its ATH of 80.4% from end of May 2020. This also means staking rewards for everybody are at an all-time low of 5.93% with a yield above inflation of only 0.94%. The most interesting development is that the meteoric rise of custodial staking which started last October has stopped. In fact, the amount staked across all top 6 custodians fell by -0.7% to 151.6M tez since I last reported in mid-May. Now all custodians combined control 18% of Tezos’ consensus. At the same time, network-wide stake grew slightly by +0.8% (+5.6M tez) which suggests new delegators chose community bakers despite the convenience of exchanges.
Growth: The total number of new Tezos delegators continued to grow and reached its highest growth ever (+7.5k) in May and is set to keep this pace in June. Over its short 2 years of existence, Tezos went through two growth epochs already and is in the middle of its third. I call them the Early Backers (Jun’18 – Mar’19), the 2019 Boomers (Apr’19 – Oct’19), and the Brrrr Generation (Nov’19 – now). Each epoch started with an up-tick in delegator growth, then continued with a dramatic price surge and an increase in delegator churn (see graph above), followed by price and churn decline. Eventually, an epochs ended with a new low in delegator churn rate. At the end of each epoch, Tezos had gained 2-3x more delegators. The most recent epoch seems to be not over yet, although churn is declining, delegator growth keeps increasing while at the same time the custodial uptrend is broken.
Cosmos part is contributed by Chjango Unchained, Ecosystem Developer at Cosmos
Voting power distribution: Voting power distribution has always been at the forefront of governance discussions. The data shows that voting power has become more decentralized. But not by much. In January, when they gave the very first Cosmos update, 72% of voting power had been concentrated amongst the top 25 validators. In just under the 6 month mark, the top 25 validators have 71.36% of the voting power. This is a small change but an incremental improvement nonetheless. Of course, because delegations are non-sticky due to having an instant redelegation feature, voting power can easily shift from validator to validator. (Source)
Average voting power distribution:
Live Networks Updates
During this phase, Web3Foundation will take a step towards decentralizing the network by increasing the active validator set from 20 to 100 active community validator nodes.
Now Polkadot is available on Staking Rewards! 19.78% of the eligible supply has been staked initially and just one day later it is already at 30.68%.
- Current reward: 23.51%
- Total Nominators: 327
Polkadot / Kusama News
- Polkadot and Kusama versions 0.8.8 is out. This is a MEDIUM priority upgrade.
- There is now over 196’000 KSM in the Kusama Treasury. You can submit a proposal for a Kusama project or offer a tip to someone here.
- You can now nominate validators directly from Subscan.
- The Polkadot Implementers’ Guide has been split from one long file to an mdbook.
- A reserved prefix (20) for Stafi mainnet has been added to Substrate.
- A “process start time, measured in seconds since the epoch” metric has been added.
- Events are now emitted for balance reserve/unreserve function calls.
- The FunctionOf struct has been deprecated.
- A bug that prevented certain events being sent in the event of a re-org has been fixed.
- Storage parameter types, which allow either reading from storage or providing a default value, have been added to Substrate.
- If an “Incoming” peer is disconnected, the relevant “alive” indicator will now be removed from the “incoming” list.
- Treasury-funded projects & bounties
- Guides on off-chain processes, submissions & registrars guidelines, proposals templates
- Information on the society
- Governance section
Every 3 days around $846k in XTZ is distributed between 50,000 staking participants.
The 1,000,000th block was baked and added to the Tezos blockchain on 17th June. Congratulations to the Tezos community!
STKR is priced at $13.30 a pop with a market capitalization of $20 million, backed by both a seed and Series A round. Key investors include Polychain Capital and Lemniscap. STKR acts as both a governance token and security, with funds garnered from the protocol distributed to token holders.
“We are recognizing the governance token as something that will become profitable for the holders. The decision-making that happens through that governance is designed to drive profits back to those token holders,” StakerDAO CEO and founder Jonas Lamis said.
Now You can see Tezos news, Tezos Bakers ratings, Tezos network data, reward calculator, personal account, list of inactive bakers – all in your phone!
- Staked ORBS tokens will be set to a locked state of 2 weeks (14 days)
- The new staking contract went through professional auditing to ensure the security of the staked tokens. The source code is available for review here.
- Introducing Tetra: the new Orbs staking wallet, to simplify the interaction with the staking contract
- A transition period of 3 months, meant to allow participants to learn and understand the importance of the new staking mechanism and to get on board.
The integration, currently live on the Ontology TestNet, will allow Ontology developers to build smart contract applications connected to real-world data. The deployment of Chainlink’s decentralized oracle network will open up a new wave of development that will bridge Ontology’s on-chain applications with off-chain resources. The initial focus will be on creating new data management capabilities for Ontology, through the integration of ONT ID, Ontology’s digital identity framework, and the ONTO wallet into a range of dApps and enterprise infrastructure.
- Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC)– cross-chain transactions
- Protobuf Migration — blockchain performance & dev acceleration
- State Sync — minutes to sync new nodes
- Full-Featured Light Clients
- Chain Upgrade Module — upgrade automation
Daily Cosmos Outpost – Inflation 7.0% Bonded 71.3%
- Delegate: 88,127
- Redelegate: 535
- Undelegate: 24,647
- Success: 6663
- Failure: 82
- Failure Rate: 1.2%
The roadmap includes many updates related to COTI Pay wallet release, COTI-X Fiat On-Ramp platform, DeFi products and payment products. Highlights in the infographics below.
Check the post above for more!
Upcoming Networks Updates
- Phase 1: June 30, 2020 – Phase 1 will be a restricted Mainnet that will not have any bounty, transfers, or issuance active in the Network. This phase will support the initial strengthening and security of the network, which will be further hardened and decentralized throughout Phase 2.
- Phase 2: Phase 2 will launch following the ConsenSys Activate Launch. A public allocation of tokens will be distributed via the Activate platform through a 3 day Dutch Auction. All early supporters and public launch participants will receive their respective token allocation at the same time during Phase 2, following the conclusion of the Activate launch.
- Phase 3: Following the 90 Day Proof of Use Period, the network will turn into an open state where tokens that are unlocked can be transferred and exchanged. The only unlocked tokens at this phase will be tokens purchased in the Activate launch and tokens earned by staking or validating during the Proof of Use Period. All team and early supporter tokens are locked for a period of 6-36 months following the Phase 2 launch conducted on Activate.. This allows for a healthy start where speculation and volatility are pushed out to a point where the token utility, validator side growth, and dApp traction can take hold in a viable sustained manner.
The Amber Network, a release candidate for Oasis Mainnet, launched today and even if you’re not running a node there are plenty of ways to get involved. A few key stats about the Oasis Network and the growing community of validators as they move into this next phase of the Network:
- Less than 10 minutes to launch the fully decentralized Amber Network (blowing away the previous record of 45 minutes!).
- Nearly 5,000 commits to the Oasis-Core codebase.
- 80+ Node Operators in the Amber Network Genesis Block including many of the top-ranking operators across PoS networks worldwide.
- 20+ community grants for network tooling, block explorers, applications and more. And lots of tools are already open-sourced for the community!
- 2 external security audits, pen-testing, and a number of fuzzing tests to validate stability.
As the release candidate for Mainnet, the Oasis Amber Network includes many of the features outlined in the Oasis Network Whitepaper and in the architectural overview noted in documentation. A few key features include:
- Fully decentralized consensus layer
- Staking and delegation
- Multiple ParaTimes (parallel runtimes) running compute on the network
- Commission rate tool for validators
- Ledger wallet integration (coming soon)
Matic token has been proposed as a collateral asset to be used on the MakerDAO platform MKR holders will vote to either accept or reject the proposal. The Maker ecosystem is governed by MKR token holders, who vote for protocol updates.
A place to get all the information on Solana Validators. Anyone can see official stats and results of Solana validator participation and performance to date here.
Kyber Network – a leading DEX liquidity provider – has unveiled a delegated governance framework to optimize KNC voter participation for their upcoming Katalyst upgrade. For those who missed it, Katalyst marks the migration of KNC to a governance token which fuels the KyberDAO. The exciting part about the KyberDAO is that KNC tokenholders are eligible to receive ETH rewards for participating in discussion regarding how DEX fees are allocated across the wider Kyber ecosystem.
AVA Labs, the development team behind the Avalanche blockchain, has raised $12 million in a private sale of its AVAX token. Participating VC firms included Galaxy Digital, Bitmain, NGC Ventures, and Dragonfly Capital, among other undisclosed investors. Initialized Capital also joined the round, adding to the AVAX investment it secured last year in AVA Lab’s $6 million Seed sale.
Why it matters:
- Avalanche is one of many green smart contract platforms vying to knock Ethereum off of its pedestal. The project has plans to launch on mainnet at some point this year, which would place amongst to Solana, NEAR Protocol, Celo, Polkadot, and Oasis Protocol as the latest base layer networks to hit the market. While a multi-chain future seems likely, not all networks will find product-market fit. In a sea of relatively undifferentiated systems, developer advocacy and VC-supplied onboarding incentives could determine which chains gain a following versus those that end up becoming immaculately constructed wastelands.
- When talking about Ethereum’s current market dominance, AVA Labs co-founder and COO Kevin Sekniqi compared “Avalanche and Ethereum to Zoom and Skype.” Long story short, Zoom won out despite Skype having a “15-year technical lead.” His reasoning is that network effects “are easily broken” by superior technology. While not always the case (insert obligatory VHS vs. Betamax reference), Kevin’s sentiment echoes that of Charles Hoskinson. In last week’s Unqualified Opinions podcast, the Cardano founder emphatically said the “great lie” in crypto is that Ethereum has achieved an insurmountable network effect. We’ll see, but it’s clear the smart contract wars are heating up and worth keeping an eye on.
By the way, Avalanche (AVAX) Upcoming Token Sale
The token sale will run from July 8, 2020 at 10:00 AM EST (UTC – 5) until July 22, 2020 at 10:00 AM EST (UTC – 5).
Those are mostly validators participating in consensus & represent the ‘base load’ of the Solana network with ~100 validators and ~400ms block times.
A value capture model can be described as a business model. An example from the real world: subscriptions business model. Whether you have a news website, custom suits, or a food truck – a good business model would work if you adapt it to your clientele. This is what the article is about. This piece is a collection of slides on the deflationary fee-burn token economics proposal, with comments from the LTO Network core team. If you prefer to see the raw file, you can see this ipfs-hosted PDF.
Staking Providers Update
Ethereum development house ConsenSys is being backed by heavy hitters like Binance and Huobi to test its new “staking-as-a-service” offering, designed to make it easy for institutions to earn income from the next iteration of the second-largest public blockchain. The Eth 2.0 staking pilot from ConsenSys Codefi includes Binance, Huobi Wallet, Matrixport, Crypto.com, DARMA Capital and Trustology. This first batch of participants will provide feedback and feature requests to Codefi as it builds out its Eth 2.0 staking API, which is targeted at large exchanges, wallet providers, custodians and crypto hedge funds. Existing Proof-of-Stake blockchains such as Tezos, Cosmos and Algorand won’t be supported.
A fresh twice monthly recap of news and observations focused on Proof-of-Stake networks, hightlighting Merging DeFi and Proof of Stake, Rocket Pool and ConsenSys Staking, European Staking Regulation and most important PoS networks updates.
Read an article about the prospects and risks of the platform, as well as about validators and their role in the Ethereum 2.0 ecosystem.
Figment Networks will be supporting the AVA Network, AVA stakeholders, and AVA developers with their infrastructure, their Web 3 Explorer Hubble, and the Web 3 API access gateway Data Hub. Learn more about AVA by reading above.
You can also learn a recent article featuring Building on Celo’s Mission by Figment Networks.
30 days staking product will be available on June 22 with 25% APR. During the staking period, users are not allowed to redeem in advance before the deadline of the staking period.
Starting from June 18 users can earn staking rewards anytime without locking up their funds as part of the soft staking program. Expected APR: 3-10%.
It will be started with up to 20% APR once the transfers are enabled. At the moment Kraken is enabling individuals who hold DOTs to claim their coins on the trading platform.
Lunie is a non-custodial staking tool that allows users to safely store, manage and stake crypto assets in Proof of Stake networks. Through this partnership, Lunie will provide a range of functions for Akash Token (AKT) via Lunie browser, Lunie iOS/Android, Lunie browser extension, and Ledger Nano S, and Ledger Nano X with a cable (no bluetooth yet) and the Cosmos Ledger app.
NoOps, architected and developed by CertiK, is the premier Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) platform tackling real pain points in Proof-of-Stake blockchain ecosystems. The product serves as a one-stop solution that serves the needs of different groups of end-users actively participating in the staking business. Certik aims to solve certain challenges of the current staking businesses, by providing an enterprise-grade, fully-functional platform to empower all types of validator players in various PoS ecosystems.
Have you always wanted to receive important staking and governance notifications via email, iOS, Android, or Slack? Lunie is opening up the waitlist to test out their new Lunie Notifications! Join here.
Check a weekly update about the most interesting things happening in crypto asset staking and lending. This time they highlight Tracking ETH 2.0, Polkadot Staking Launch, Polkadot Staking Webinar, Oasis Chain Candidate Launch, Current Staking and Lending Yields, & More!
These are the key highlights:
- Stakin Keeps Global Push with Crypto Education
- KAVA CDP is live!
- NPoS on Polkadot
- ICON P-Rep Delegation Program Resubmit
- ICON Main P-Reps Lowered Global Commission Rate
- Coda’s Public Testnet 3.2b is live!
- Solana TDS Stage 5
Check a recap of the recent news that happened within staking ecosystem.
Upcoming Staking Events
- 29th June 2020 – Online event: Custom tokens with CosmWasm
- 30th June 2020 – TezTalks Live #6 – Alexander Eichhorn, Oliver Simon, and Johann Tanzer. (TzStats x Tulip Tools). More info is accessible via the link.
- 30th June 2020 – Cosmos AMA #3 with Sunny Aggarwal on Reddit, talking about r/cosmosnetwork
- 1st July 2020 – Acala Network AMA with Ruitao Su, the cofounder, and Bette Chen, the COO.
- 1st July 2020 – Chainlink and Certus.one — German-speaking Virtual Meetup
Citadel is a multi-asset non-custodial platform for the management and storage of crypto assets established by Paradigm Fund. One of the main functions of the service is participating in the PoS consensus. The platform allows you to delegate crypto assets, analyze market conditions and transaction status, as well as create several cryptocurrency wallets using a single seed phrase. Moreover, the software part is configured so that all private keys are stored encrypted on your device. Currently, the Citadel project is under development.
According to the last biweekly update:
The Citadel team is operating extremely hard on the major releases as a very significant milestone is about to happen! The launch of the stable version of Citadel 1.0 is near at hand!
We never cease to wonder at the progress the team has made within the later days! As part of the latest development report, the Citadel team has shared what they’ve been working on over the past two weeks. Firstly, they added new networks: BTC, ETH, USDT (ETH). Concerning ETH, the team store transactions for the last 30 days, at the end of June, they will receive all network transactions. Another huge step towards integrating Ethereum into Citadel application is that the development team has deployed a node on the Onyx Ethereum 2.0 testnet. As for BTC, they temporarily configured to receive transactions through the partner API and plan to start uploading the blockchain to their own node. As for front-end tasks, the Citadel developers connected ETH, USDT, and started adding BTC. Moreover, they added import of ETH, USDT from Ledger wallet, implemented export of a private key for created addresses and optimized transaction display, added caching for balance. Furthermore, the team agreed on a new UI kit for the current version of the interface.
As for the social side, these weeks, the Citadel team attended ‘Cosmos Unchained: Cosmos vs Tezos’ virtual meetup — one in a series that explores the different blockchains opportunities that exist and how they’ll make an impact. In this episode, the team explored the design architecture, key features, and the vision of Cosmos and Tezos. They also to join ‘Cosmos Unchained: Cosmos vs Ethereum 2.0’ later today. On June 2nd, the team joined CosmWasm seventh biweekly community call where they talked 0.8 release, Cosmos Hub proposal, Cosm JS, the roadmap to CosmWasm 1.0, and more. Moreover, they took part in Cosmos Hub topic call on ‘How can the Cosmos Hub evolve as a living organism?’ featured Chjango Unchained. The Citadel team together with the Cosmos community explored their options as a community and considered the future directives for the Hub and Cosmos.
These weeks, the Citadel Founders had a series of working calls. Particularly, they talked about cooperation and participating in Citadel beta testing with Jacob Arluck (Researcher at Tezos, Ecosystem Development and Governance Projects at TQ). And they discussed possible collaborations with Daniel Kochis (Global Head of BD & Partnerships at Chainlink).
And last but not least, last week, three new specialists joined the Citadel team: marketer, designer, and frontend developer! It will help the team to achieve ambitious goals faster and to delight Citadel partners with a convenient product and expected updates!
Learn more about Citadel:
- Citadel Telegram chat
- Citadel Twitter page
- Citadel Facebook
- Citadel Reddit
- Citadel Medium
- Citadel Instagram
- Check the recent biweekly updates on PoS Networks, created by Paradigm Fund: